群体动力学与团队的成功

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复杂的问题往往需要团队努力协调解决,然而团队成功与哪些要素有关呢?

为什么有些行为受根深蒂固的社会习俗约束,而有些不受呢?

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理解群体动力学与团队的成功

Understanding the group dynamics and success of teams

From Royal Society Open ScienceApril 7, 6:57 PM

By Michael Klug, James P. Bagrow

(Translated by -猪哥,Edited by 傅渥成)

复杂的问题往往需要团队努力协调解决,并且会消耗大量资源,然而我们对团队如何形成、如何成功的理解却因缺乏大规模的、定量的数据而受到限制。我们对大约150, 000个自组织在线团队项目的活动轨迹和成功水平进行了分析。虽然较大的团队往往会更成功,但工作量在团队中的分布是高度集中的,即只是由少数成员进行了最多的工作。我们发现非常成功的团队的这种集中程度显著高于具有相同规模的普通团队,他们的成员会参与更多样化的项目,并且这些高度成功团体的成员更可能成为其他团队的核心或“领导”。团队的成功和它的规模、关注点、尤其是团队经验之间的关系不能用易混淆的因素来解释,比如团队年龄,来自非团队成员的外部贡献等,也不能用群体机制比如社会惰化来解释。总之,这些特点所指向的组织原则可能会让组织在尽力配合下取得最大的成功。

Complex problems often require coordinated group effort and can consume significant resources, yet our understanding of how teams form and succeed has been limited by a lack of large-scale, quantitative data. We analyse activity traces and success levels for approximately 150, 000 self-organized, online team projects. While larger teams tend to be more successful, workload is highly focused across the team, with only a few members performing most work. We find that highly successful teams are significantly more focused than average teams of the same size, that their members have worked on more diverse sets of projects, and the members of highly successful teams are more likely to be core members or ‘leads’ of other teams. The relations between team success and size, focus and especially team experience cannot be explained by confounding factors such as team age, external contributions from non-team members, nor by group mechanisms such as social loafing. Taken together, these features point to organizational principles that may maximize the success of collaborative endeavours.’

原文链接:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160007

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实时情境中社会习俗的形成 

The Formation of Social Conventions in Real-Time Environments

From PLoS ONE 11(3): e0151670.April 6, 12:25 AM

By Hawkins RXD, Goldstone RL,Hawkins RXD

(Translated by 阿勺,Edited by 傅渥成)

为什么有些行为受根深蒂固的社会习俗约束,而有些不受呢?我们通过实验研究了非协作博弈中形成习俗的两个因素:每轮博弈互动的连续性(同时vs实时)和互动时的风险性(高vs低回报之间的差异)。为最大限度地提升博弈的效率和公平性,玩家必须在两个同样具有挑战性的均衡点间选择其一。与其他控制互动连续性的研究相同的是,我们发现那些允许在比赛回合内持续互动的玩家,相比那些被迫同时做决定的玩家,具有更高的效率和公平性。然而在实时情境中,均衡的稳定性随赌注系统性的变化而产生了戏剧性的差异:当赌注高时,玩家行为更稳定。为了解释这个结果,我们对每轮博弈中连续的互动动力学和信号动力学提出了一种全新分析。我们研究了前人的讨论中所没有考虑过的一种动力学,它反映了一次实验以内或者多次实验间的相互作用,这种相互作用是社会渠道(social canalization,编者注:追随社会主流风气,进一步导致社会集体态度的形成。)的一种形式。当实时情境中的赌注较低,玩家能协同合作,但当赌注增加,玩家建立和倾向于分享经验的压力就越大。

Why are some behaviors governed by strong social conventions while others are not? We experimentally investigate two factors contributing to the formation of conventions in a game of impure coordination: the continuity of interaction within each round of play (simultaneous vs. real-time) and the stakes of the interaction (high vs. low differences between payoffs). To maximize efficiency and fairness in this game, players must coordinate on one of two equally advantageous equilibria. In agreement with other studies manipulating continuity of interaction, we find that players who were allowed to interact continuously within rounds achieved outcomes with greater efficiency and fairness than players who were forced to make simultaneous decisions. However, the stability of equilibria in the real-time condition varied systematically and dramatically with stakes: players converged on more stable patterns of behavior when stakes are high. To account for this result, we present a novel analysis of the dynamics of continuous interaction and signaling within rounds. We discuss this previously unconsidered interaction between within-trial and across-trial dynamics as a form of social canalization. When stakes are low in a real-time environment, players can satisfactorily coordinate ‘on the fly’, but when stakes are high there is increased pressure to establish and adhere to shared expectations that persist across rounds.

原文链接:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670

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